Bioinformatický seminár

Tue 4 Oct. 2011, 17:20

Title: Boyko et al. A simple genetic architecture underlies morphological variation in dogs
Speaker: Pali Kmeč, Peter Balko

Domestic dogs exhibit tremendous phenotypic diversity, including a greater
variation in body size than any other terrestrial mammal. Here, we
generate a high density map of canine genetic variation by genotyping 915
dogs from 80 domestic dog breeds, 83 wild canids, and 10 outbred African
shelter dogs across 60,968 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs).
Coupling this genomic resource with external measurements from breed
standards and individuals as well as skeletal measurements from museum
specimens, we identify 51 regions of the dog genome associated with
phenotypic variation among breeds in 57 traits. The complex traits include
average breed body size and external body dimensions and cranial, dental,
and long bone shape and size with and without allometric scaling. In
contrast to the results from association mapping of quantitative traits in
humans and domesticated plants, we find that across dog breeds, a small
number of quantitative trait loci (< or = 3) explain the majority of
phenotypic variation for most of the traits we studied. In addition, many
genomic regions show signatures of recent selection, with most of the
highly differentiated regions being associated with breed-defining traits
such as body size, coat characteristics, and ear floppiness. Our results
demonstrate the efficacy of mapping multiple traits in the domestic dog
using a database of genotyped individuals and highlight the important role
human-directed selection has played in altering the genetic architecture
of key traits in this important species.