Bioinformatický seminár

Tue 12 Mar. 2013, 17:20

Title: Angelique D'Hont et al. (2012) The banana (Musa acuminata) genome and the evolution of monocotyledonous plants
Speaker: Soňa Gibaštíková

Bananas (Musa spp.), including dessert and cooking types, are giant perennial
monocotyledonous herbs of the order Zingiberales, a sister group to the
well-studied Poales, which include cereals. Bananas are vital for food security
in many tropical and subtropical countries and the most popular fruit in
industrialized countries. The Musa domestication process started some 7,000 years
ago in Southeast Asia. It involved hybridizations between diverse species and
subspecies, fostered by human migrations, and selection of diploid and triploid
seedless, parthenocarpic hybrids thereafter widely dispersed by vegetative
propagation. Half of the current production relies on somaclones derived from a
single triploid genotype (Cavendish). Pests and diseases have gradually become
adapted, representing an imminent danger for global banana production. Here we
describe the draft sequence of the 523-megabase genome of a Musa acuminata
doubled-haploid genotype, providing a crucial stepping-stone for genetic
improvement of banana. We detected three rounds of whole-genome duplications in
the Musa lineage, independently of those previously described in the Poales
lineage and the one we detected in the Arecales lineage. This first monocotyledon
high-continuity whole-genome sequence reported outside Poales represents an
essential bridge for comparative genome analysis in plants. As such, it clarifies
commelinid-monocotyledon phylogenetic relationships, reveals Poaceae-specific
features and has led to the discovery of conserved non-coding sequences predating
monocotyledon-eudicotyledon divergence.