2-INF-185 Integrácia dátových zdrojov 2017/18

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Body z už opravených úloh nájdete na serveri v /grades/userid.txt
Dátumy odovzdania projektov:
1. termín: nedeľa 4.6. 22:00
2. termín: streda 20.6. 22:00
Oba termíny sú riadne, prvý je určený pre študentov, čo chcú mať predmet ukončený skôr. V oboch prípadoch sa pár dní po odvzdaní budú konať krátke osobné stretnutia s vyučujúcimi (diskusia k projektu a uzatváranie známky). Presné dni a časy dohodneme neskôr. Projekty odovzdajte podobne ako domáce úlohy do /submit/projekt

Genomika: Informácie ku trackom

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Informácie k predmetu Genomika

Na tejto stránke sú informácie k trackom ktoré budete vytvárať na browseri (obe skupiny). K niektorým trackom pridáme ďalšie informácie v nasledujúcich dňoch.

Comments to the task list

  • Task (A) is a prerequisite of all other tasks, the rest are mostly independent of each other.
  • Tasks are marked as fast (no significant computation required), medium (estimated computation up to 1 hour), slow (longer computation, possibly several hours).
    • These times are only estimates, reality may vary. Perhaps provide actual running times (approximate) in your documentation.
    • Fast tasks can be done entirely on genomika server.
    • Students having accounts on compbio research cluster may run medium and slow tasks there.
  • If you get stuck on one task, you can try to do at least initial stages of another one. Coordinate within group!
  • Document your work. Documentation should be independent of this page and of the documentation created last year - copy and modify relevant passages, cite sources.

Basic information on creating tracks

(A) Genome (fast)

hgsql hgcentral -e '
insert into dbDb values (...);

insert into defaultDb values (...);

insert into genomeClade values (...);

(B) Protein coding genes and other items from the annotation (fast, needs A)

baseColorUseCds given
baseColorDefault genomicCodons

(C) RepeatMasker (slow, needs A)

(D) tRNAscan-SE (medium, needs A)

  • Run software for finding tRNA genes (for comparison with annotation)
  • Download software from http://lowelab.ucsc.edu/tRNAscan-SE/ (already installed on compbio servers as tRNAscan-SE command)
  • Convert output by script rna/tRNAscan-SEtoBED.py on github
  • trackDb.ra record:
track tRNAs
shortLabel tRNA Genes
longLabel Transfer RNA Genes Identified with tRNAscan-SE
group genes
visibility hide
color 0,20,150
type bed 12
nextItemButton on
priority 10

(E) Augustus (slow, needs A)

  • Run gene finder Augustus, create track with predicted genes (for comparison with annotation)
  • Download and install software from http://bioinf.uni-greifswald.de/augustus/
    • Already installed on compbio servers
  • Example of command line: augustus --uniqueGeneId=true --species=ustilago_maydis genome.fa > augustus.gtf
  • ustilago_maydis is a related fungal species used for training parameters
  • The result needs to be converted from gtf to genepred, by gtfToGenePred (at genomika server) with option -genePredExt
  • If you name your track augustus, genome browser will recognize it automatically, no need to modify trackDb.ra

(F) Self-alignment (medium/slow needs A)

lastdb genome.fa genome.fa 
lastal genome.fa genome.fa -E 1e-20 > self.maf #slow part
maf-convert psl self.maf > tmpC.psl

# filter out trivial self-alignments as well as alignments shorter than 100bp in one of the two sequences or with identity less than 0.9
perl -lane 'die unless @F==21; $s=($F[9] eq $F[13] && $F[10]==$F[12] && $F[11]==0); $s = $s || $F[12]-$F[11]<100 || $F[16]-$F[15]<100 || $F[0]<0.9*($F[0]+$F[1]+$F[2]+$F[3]+$F[5]+$F[7]); print unless $s' tmpC.psl > tmpC100_90.psl
pslToChain tmpC100_90.psl tmpC100_90.chain # kent tools binary, available on genomika
# fix bad coordinates on reverse strand 
perl -lane 'if ($F[0] eq "chain" && $F[9] eq "-") { ($F[10],$F[11]) = ($F[8]-$F[11], $F[8]-$F[10]); print join(" ", @F) } else { print }' tmpC100_90.chain > self100_90.chain

# another chain for alignments with at least 70% identity and length at least 300bp
perl -lane 'die unless @F==21; $s=($F[9] eq $F[13] && $F[10]==$F[12] && $F[11]==0); $s = $s || $F[12]-$F[11]<300 || $F[16]-$F[15]<300 || $F[0]<0.7*($F[0]+$F[1]+$F[2]+$F[3]+$F[5]+$F[7]); print unless $s' tmpC.psl > tmpC300_70.psl
/projects2/dipMag/magCap-2017/assembly/magCapA/seq-tracks/pslToChain tmpC300_70.psl tmpC300_70.chain # kent tools binary copied from genome-dev
# fix bad coordinates on reverse strand 
perl -lane 'if ($F[0] eq "chain" && $F[9] eq "-") { ($F[10],$F[11]) = ($F[8]-$F[11], $F[8]-$F[10]); print join(" ", @F) } else { print }' tmpC300_70.chain > self300_70.chain

Parts of trackDb.ra (replace magCap5 with your genome name):

track selfChain100_90
shortLabel Self aln >90%id
longLabel Self alignments with length >100bp, identity >90%
group varRep
type chain magCapA5

track selfChain300_70
shortLabel Self aln >70%id
longLabel Self alignments with length >300bp, identity >70%
group varRep
type chain magCapA5

(G) Chains between genomes (medium, needs A from both groups)

  • The goal is to create chains from malGlo to malSym and vice versa
    • Each group creates chains from its browser to the other browser
  • This is done similarly as self-similarity chains, but alignments are done between two different genomes and filtering is done differently
lastdb genome.fa genome.fa 
lastal genome.fa genome2.fa -E 1e-20 > firstSecond.maf'
maf-convert psl firstSecond.maf > tmp.psl

# keep only alignments of length at least 100 in both sequences
perl -lane 'die unless @F==21; $s = $F[12]-$F[11]<100 || $F[16]-$F[15]<100; print unless $s' tmp.psl > tmp100.psl
pslToChain tmp100.psl tmp100.chain # kent tools binary on genomika
# fix bad coordinates on reverse strand 
perl -lane 'if ($F[0] eq "chain" && $F[9] eq "-") { ($F[10],$F[11]) = ($F[8]-$F[11], $F[8]-$F[10]); print join(" ", @F) } else { print }' tmp100.chain > firstSecond.chain
  • trackDb.ra record similar, but include target species in line with type chain

(H) Protein-based chains between genomes (medium, needs A,B from both groups)

  • In more distant species, DNA-based chains from part G are not sufficiently sensitive, but it is easier to find similarity between proteins
  • In this type of track you extract protein sequences based on genome sequence and gene annotation, then you compare protein sets from the two species and map protein alignments back to the genome
  • Commands from the last year create a psl file and load it. Then the alignments cannot be used to move between genomes. It would be better to convert psl to chain as in parts F and G.
  • https://github.com/fmfi-genomika/genomika-2017/wiki/Chains-from-protein-alignments

(I) Genomes for comparative genomics (fast, only one group)

  • Download genomes of additional Malassezia species (other than malGlo and malSym)
  • Use list here [3], download M. pachydermatis, M. nana, M. equina, M. caprae, M. dermatis, M. restricta
    • Download one representative assembly per species (some species have multipe strains /assemblies)
  • Rename chromosomes similarly as in A, name fasta files in a systematic way (malPac1.fa etc.)
  • Store files in a directory at genomika server
  • Do not forget to note down in your documentation the URL of each downloaded fasta file.

(J) Multiple whole-genome alignment (slow, needs A from both groups, I)

  • The goal of this track is to create a whole-genome multiple alignment of several genomes
  • Use genomes from part I as well as malGlo and malSym genomes from the browser
  • Beware that malSym1 and malGlo1 should be correctly named, both the genome as a whole and their chromosomes as in the browser
  • The task requires some preprocessing - renaming things etc (fast), alignment computation (slow, we recommend running on compbio servers) and postprocessing (fast/medium)
    • Preprocessing and possibly also part of running alignment can be reused between groups - collaborate
  • The notes from the last year consist of three parts: general introduction, Brona's notes (Example of use of tba in a different project), and student notes (Example of use of tba in a our project, display alignments).
    • Probably follow student notes.
    • The notes are not finished (end with "track does not work"), but the track was finished, see track "S. Align (L)" in sacCer3 browser. See final version of sacCer3 trackDb.ra on genomika server.
  • To run alignment, you need phylogenetic tree of these species. Use the tree from paper by Wu et al 2015 [4] - our species are in group B. Write the tree in the parenthesis notation
  • https://github.com/fmfi-genomika/genomika-2017/wiki/Alignments

(K) Conservation by phyloP (medium, needs A,I,J)

  • Based on multiple alignment from part J, find which positions are conserved in evolution (the result is a numerical level of conservation per position in a wiggle format)
  • See tracks Align. Cons. (L) and Multiz. Cons. (L) in sacCer3 browser (here we want only one track)
  • Use the same tree as in I
  • https://github.com/fmfi-genomika/genomika-2017/wiki/PhyloP-tracks

(L) Conserved elements by phastCons (medium, needs A,I,J)

  • Similar as track K, but uses a different program from the phast package. Phastcons is based on and HMM, finds contiguous conserved regions. The result is a list of conserved regions (bed format) as well as posterior probability of conserved region at each position (wig format)
  • On sacCer3, wig format are e.g. tracks Cons. new (L), Cons. old (L); bed format track is PhastCons Most, but that was taken from the original UCSC database so no commands for it are available, but hopefully it should be easy to create and load.
  • https://github.com/fmfi-genomika/genomika-2017/wiki/Conservation

(M) Protein domain and other protein annotation from Uniprot (fast/medium, needs A,B)

  • The uniprot database (http://www.uniprot.org/) contains information about proteins. The goal is to download information about malGlo and malSym proteins, parse out info about particular regions and map these to the corresponding regions of the genome.
  • See sacCer3 tracks Pfam (L), uniProtAnnot (L), uniProtStruct (L)
  • Download protein info in XML format malGlo [5], malSym [6]
  • Last year's protocol links uniprot proteins to genes from browser annotation via sequence similarity search (blat). Possibly this could be done also by cross-linking information from the databases, but blat is fine.
  • https://github.com/fmfi-genomika/genomika-2017/wiki/Uniprot-data
  • Last year, Pfam track was created by runing Interproscan tool locally [7]. However, this is time-consuming and uniprot contains pre-computed info about Pfam domains. Therefore it would be better to modify scripts so that they parse Pfam out of uniprot XML files together with other info.

(N) Expression data from RNA-seq (medium/slow, needs A)

  • The goal is to display the results of measurement of expression (amount of mRNA) by RNA-seq
  • Workflow:
    • The original data are reads in fastq format. Some preprocessing can be done (quality trimming etc)
    • Reads are aligned to the genome to produce sam/bam file. This is SLOW. The file is then sorted and indexed.
    • Bam files can be used in the browser, but they are big. We will report only the number of reads at each position in a wig (wiggle) format.
    • Wig files can be loaded to the database but perhaps more efficiently converted to binary bigwig files. The database then contains only reference to bigwig file.
  • Data:
    • malGlo [8] - only reads provided. Out of 27 experiments choose only 1-2, align to genome, e.g. this one: [9]
    • malSym [10] - bam files provided
  • malGlo needs to align reads to the genome.
    • Currently recommended aligner is STAR https://github.com/alexdobin/STAR
    • It seems that STAR can directly create wig files, read the manual for recommended settings (e.g. the section on small genomes)
    • To convert wig to bigwig, use wigToBigWig on genomika
    • To load bigwig file, see commands below
  • malSym already has bam files for several experiments
    • These need to be converted to wig / bigwig
    • First use bedtools suite to create bedgraph (see commands below), then convert to bigwig using bedGraphToBigWig (installed on genomika)
    • To load bigwig file, see commands below
    • Multiple experiments are better combined to a single composite track with individual subtracks
    • Subtracks are loaded to db normally, composite tract is noted only in trackdb file, see below
  • Useful commands (modify for your situation):
# bam to bedgraph 
faSize -detailed genome.fa > genome.sizes
bedtools genomecov -ibam reads.bam -g genome.size -bga -split > reads.bedgraph

# to create track, place bigwig file to appropriate place in /gbdb
# then create table with reference to this file:
hgsql malXyz1 -e "CREATE TABLE table_name (fileName varchar(255) not null);"
hgsql malXyz1 -e "insert into table_name values ('/gbdb/malXyz1/filename.bw');"

# in trackDb.ra include something like this: (change 500 to appropriate value at which read depth is clipped)
track table_name
shortLabel RNA-seq coverage
longLabel RNA-seq coverage
visibility dense
group rna
type bigWig 0 500

# composite track from multiple experiments:
track track_name
compositeTrack on
type bigWig 0 200
shortLabel RNA-seq coverage
longLabel RNA-seq coverage
group rna
visibility dense

track subtrack_name
shortLabel subtrack_label
longLabel subtrack_label
parent track_name
type bigWig 0 250
visibility full
maxHeightPixels 80:16:8

(O) Differences between strains (slow, needs A)

  • The goal is to compare multiple strains of the same species and display differences between them in the browser
  • The usual way is to align sequencing reads from one strain to the reference strain, identify differences and display them in vcf format
  • Read files are large, therefore we directly compare assembled genomes and create the vcf file using c-sibelia tool
  • You can mostly follow last-year's notes except for the final steps. Instead of placing vcf.gz and vcf.gz.tbi files to a different server, place them to genomika to /gbdb/malXyz1/subdir, then insert to database using commands below
  • As in part N, you can group several strains to a single composite track, see parts of trackDb.ra in commands below
  • https://github.com/fmfi-genomika/genomika-2017/wiki/Strain-comparison
  • Last year's tracks are currently broken, but you can at least check their setting. eg. CLIB89 variants (L) in yarLip browser
  • Download other strains:
    • malGlo [11] use strains CBS 7966, CBS 7874
    • malSym [12] use all strains except ATCC 42132
  • Useful commands (modify for your situation):
# to create track, place vcf.gz and vcf.gz.tbi files to appropriate place in /gbdb
# then create table with reference to the vcf.gz file:
hgsql malXyz1 -e "CREATE TABLE table_name (fileName varchar(255) not null);"
hgsql malZyz1 -e "insert into table_name values ('/gbdb/maglXyz1/subdir/filename.vcf.gz');"

# in trackDb.ra include something like this:
# composite track:
track track_name
compositeTrack on
type vcfTabix
shortLabel ...
longLabel ...
group varRep
visibility hide

# subtrack:
track subtrack_name
shortLabel ...
longLabel ...
parent track_name
visibility pack