2-AIN-506 a 2-AIN-252: Seminár z bioinformatiky (2) a (4)
Leto 2018

Ross P. Byrne, Rui Martiniano, Lara M. Cassidy, Matthew Carrigan, Garrett Hellenthal, Orla Hardiman, Daniel G. Bradley, Russell L. McLaughlin. Insular Celtic population structure and genomic footprints of migration. PLoS Genet, 14(1):e1007152. 2018.

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Previous studies of the genetic landscape of Ireland have suggested homogeneity, 
with population substructure undetectable using single-marker methods. Here we
have harnessed the haplotype-based method fineSTRUCTURE in an Irish genome-wide
SNP dataset, identifying 23 discrete genetic clusters which segregate with
geographical provenance. Cluster diversity is pronounced in the west of Ireland
but reduced in the east where older structure has been eroded by historical
migrations. Accordingly, when populations from the neighbouring island of Britain
are included, a west-east cline of Celtic-British ancestry is revealed along with
a particularly striking correlation between haplotypes and geography across both 
islands. A strong relationship is revealed between subsets of Northern Irish and 
Scottish populations, where discordant genetic and geographic affinities reflect 
major migrations in recent centuries. Additionally, Irish genetic proximity of
all Scottish samples likely reflects older strata of communication across the
narrowest inter-island crossing. Using GLOBETROTTER we detected Irish admixture
signals from Britain and Europe and estimated dates for events consistent with
the historical migrations of the Norse-Vikings, the Anglo-Normans and the British
Plantations. The influence of the former is greater than previously estimated
from Y chromosome haplotypes. In all, we paint a new picture of the genetic
landscape of Ireland, revealing structure which should be considered in the
design of studies examining rare genetic variation and its association with