2-AIN-506 a 2-AIN-252: Seminár z bioinformatiky (2) a (4)
Leto 2016

Lucia Carbone et al.. Gibbon genome and the fast karyotype evolution of small apes. Nature, 513(7517):195-201. 2014.

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Gibbons are small arboreal apes that display an accelerated rate of evolutionary 
chromosomal rearrangement and occupy a key node in the primate phylogeny between 
Old World monkeys and great apes. Here we present the assembly and analysis of a 
northern white-cheeked gibbon (Nomascus leucogenys) genome. We describe the
propensity for a gibbon-specific retrotransposon (LAVA) to insert into chromosome
segregation genes and alter transcription by providing a premature termination
site, suggesting a possible molecular mechanism for the genome plasticity of the 
gibbon lineage. We further show that the gibbon genera (Nomascus, Hylobates,
Hoolock and Symphalangus) experienced a near-instantaneous radiation
approximately 5 million years ago, coincident with major geographical changes in 
southeast Asia that caused cycles of habitat compression and expansion. Finally, 
we identify signatures of positive selection in genes important for forelimb
development (TBX5) and connective tissues (COL1A1) that may have been involved in
the adaptation of gibbons to their arboreal habitat.