Rhesus Macaque Genome Sequencing and Analysis Consortium. Evolutionary and biomedical insights from the rhesus macaque genome. Science, 316(5822):222-234. April 2007.

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The rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) is an abundant primate species that 
diverged from the ancestors of Homo sapiens about 25 million years ago. 
Because they are genetically and physiologically similar to humans, rhesus 
monkeys are the most widely used nonhuman primate in basic and applied 
biomedical research. We determined the genome sequence of an Indian-origin 
Macaca mulatta female and compared the data with chimpanzees and humans to 
reveal the structure of ancestral primate genomes and to identify evidence 
for positive selection and lineage-specific expansions and contractions of 
gene families. A comparison of sequences from individual animals was used to 
investigate their underlying genetic diversity. The complete description of 
the macaque genome blueprint enhances the utility of this animal model for 
biomedical research and improves our understanding of the basic biology of 
the species.