Cody J. Steely, Jerilyn A. Walker, Vallmer E. Jordan, Thomas O. Beckstrom, Cullen L. McDaniel, Corey P. {St Romain}, Emily C. Bennett, Arianna Robichaux, Brooke N. Clement, Muthuswamy Raveendran, {Baboon Genome Analysis Consortium}, Kim C. Worley, Jane Phillips-Conroy, Clifford J. Jolly, Jeff Rogers, Miriam K. Konkel, Mark A. Batzer. Alu Insertion Polymorphisms as Evidence for Population Structure in Baboons. Genome Biology and Evolution, 9(9):2418-2427. 2017. Tomas Vinar is a member of the Baboon Genome Analysis Consortium.

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Male dispersal from the natal group at or near maturity is a feature of most
baboon (Papio) species. It potentially has profound effects upon population
structure and evolutionary processes, but dispersal, especially for unusually
long distances, is not readily documented by direct field observation. In this
pilot study, we investigate the possibility of retrieving baboon population
structure in yellow (Papio cynocephalus) and kinda (Papio kindae) baboons from
the distribution of variation in a genome-wide set of 494 Alu insertion
polymorphisms, made available via the recently completed Baboon Genome Analysis
Consortium. Alu insertion variation in a mixed population derived from yellow and
olive (Papio anubis) baboons identified each individual's proportion of heritage 
from either parental species. In an unmixed yellow baboon population, our
analysis showed greater similarity between neighboring than between more
distantly situated groups, suggesting structuring of the population by male
dispersal distance. Finally (and very provisionally), an unexpectedly sharp
difference in Alu insertion frequencies between members of neighboring social
groups of kinda baboons suggests that intergroup migration may be more rare than 
predicted in this little known species.