Peter Vdacny, Emese Ersekova, Katarina Soltys, Jaroslav Budis, Lukas Pecina, Ivan Rurik. Co-existence of multiple bacterivorous clevelandellid ciliate species in hindgut of wood-feeding cockroaches in light of their prokaryotic consortium. Scientific Reports, 8(1):17749. 2018.

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The hindgut of wood-feeding Panesthia cockroaches harbours a diverse microbial
community, whose most morphologically prominent members are bacterivorous
clevelandellid ciliates. Co-occurrence and correlation patterns of prokaryotes
associated with these endosymbiotic ciliates were investigated. Multidimensional 
scaling based on taxa interaction-adjusted index showed a very clear separation
of the hindgut ciliate samples from the ciliate-free hindgut samples. This
division was corroborated also by SparCC analysis which revealed strong negative 
associations between prokaryotic taxa that were relatively more abundant in the
ciliate-free hindgut samples and prokaryotic taxa that were more abundant in the 
ciliate samples. This very likely reflects the grazing behaviour of hindgut
ciliates which prefer Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria, causing
their abundances to be increased in the ciliate samples at the expense of
abundances of Euryarchaeota and Bacteroidetes which prevail in the hindgut
content. Ciliate species do not distinctly differ in the associated prokaryotes, 
indicating that minute variations in the proportion of associated bacteria might 
be sufficient to avoid competition between bacterivorous ciliate species and
hence enable their co-occurrence in the same host. The nearest free-living
relatives of hindgut ciliates have a different pattern of associations with
prokaryotes, i.e., alphaproteobacteria are predominantly associated with
free-living ciliates while gammaproteobacteria with hindgut ciliates.