Ján Jurenka, Anna Nagyová, Mohammad Dababseh, Peter Mihalov, Igor Stankovič, Vladimír Boža, Marián Kravec, Michal Palkovič, Martin Čaprnda, Peter Sabaka. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Antibody Status at the Time of Hospital Admission and the Prognosis of Patients with COVID-19: A Prospective Observational Study. Infectious Disease Reports, 14(6):1004-1016. 2022.
Download preprint: not available
Download from publisher: https://doi.org/10.3390/idr14060100
Related web page: not available
Bibliography entry: BibTeX
The association between COVID-19 severity and antibody response has not been clearly determined. We aimed to assess the effects of antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 S protein at the time of hospital admission on in- hospital and longitudinal survival. Methods: A prospective observational study in naive hospitalised COVID-19 patients. The presence of anti-S SARS- CoV-2 IgM and IgG was evaluated using a lateral flow assay at the time of admission. The patients were followed up for 8–30 months to assess survival. We recruited 554 patients (330 men and 224 women). Overall, 63.0% of the patients had positive IgG or IgM anti-S SARS-CoV-2 antibodies at the time of hospital admission. In the univariate analysis, the patients with negative anti-S SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG antibodies were referred to the hospital sooner, had lower CRP and D-dimer concentrations, and were hospitalised longer. They were also more likely to be admitted to an intensive care unit and more often received baricitinib treatment. During their hospital stay, 8.5% of the antibody-positive and 22.3% of the antibody-negative patients died (p = 0.0001). The median duration of the follow-up was 21 months. During the follow-up after hospital discharge, 3.6% of antibody-positive and 9.1% of antibody-negative patients died (p = 0.027). In the multivariate analysis, the negative anti-S SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were associated with a higher risk of in-hospital death (OR 3.800; 95% CI 1.844–7.829; p = 0.0001) and with a higher risk of death during follow-up (OR 2.863; 95% CI 1.110–7.386; p = 0.030). These associations were independent of age, the time from symptom onset to hospital admission, CRP, D-Dimer, the number of comorbidities, disease severity at the time of hospital admission, and baricitinib therapy. Our study concludes that negative anti-S SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG at the time of admission are associated with higher in-hospital mortality and cause a higher risk of all-cause death during follow-up after discharge.